《保险研究》20191109-《保险合同条款争议的中间立场解释方法》(夏庆锋)

[中图分类号]D922.284 [文献标识码]A [文章编号]1004-3306(2019)11-0114-14 DOI:10.13497/j.cnki.is.2019.11.009

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  • 内容介绍

[摘   要]法院在审理保险合同纠纷时,一般会采用两种解释方法对争议条款进行释明,一种为严格按照条款字面含义或法律明确规定进行解释的法律形式主义解释方法,另一种为尊重被保险人对合同条款期望的法律功能主义解释方法。两种解释方法各有优点,但弊端也十分明显。因此,有必要研究并总结出更为合理的中间立场解释方法,在实现裁判结果具有一致性和可预测性的基础之上,同时考虑被保险人的劣势地位而进行特殊的规则安排。中间立场解释方法尊重当事人意思自治所形成的合同约定,纳入客观的、可行的、合理的标准,兼顾法律形式主义与法律功能主义,以实现对保险人与被保险人的实质平等保护。这种解释方法不仅有利于保险人说明义务及明确说明义务制度的实行,也防止被保险人对权利的滥用。

[关键词]条款争议;法律形式主义;法律功能主义;格式合同;中间立场

[作者简介]夏庆锋,国际关系学院法律系讲师,法学博士,研究方向:合同法、保险法,E-mail:xqfpeter@163.com。


The Middle Ground Interpretation Method for Clause Dispute in Insurance Contract

XIA Qing-feng

Abstract:For the court in the trial of insurance contract disputes,it typically takes two stances to interpret the controversial clause.The first stance is to adopt the legal formalism method and completely complies with the provisions of the contract and the relevant regulations of Contract Law and Insurance Law.The second stance is the legal functionalism method which respect the insured’s reasonable expectations,as long as the expectation is reasonable.Both methods have their own advantages,but the disadvantages are also obvious.Therefore,it is necessary to research and summarize a more reasonable middle ground interpretation method.This method,on the basis of realizing the consistency and predictability of judgements,can also take into account the disadvantage of the insured and make special arrangement.The middle ground interpretation method respects the contract agreement formed by the parties’ autonomy of will,incorporates objective,feasible and reasonable standards,and gives consideration to legal formalism and legal functionalism,so as to realize the equal protection for the insurer and the insured in substantiality.The application of this method is not only conducive to the implementation of the insurer’s statement obligation,but also prevents the insured from abusing their rights.

Key words:clause dispute;legal formalism;legal functionalism;format contract;middle ground